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PANDANUS FASCICULARIS

KETAKI   PANDANUS FASCICULARIS
BOTANICAL NAME
Pandanus fascicularis Lamk.
Syn.  P. odoratissimus L. f.; P. tectorius auct. pl. non  Soland ex Parkinson
NATURAL ORDER
Pandanaceae
CLASSICAL NAMES
Ketaki, Ketaka, Suchipushpa, Suchikapushpa, Krakachachchhada, Trinashunya
VERNACULAR NAMES
Eng. – Screw pine, Umbrella tree. Hindi – Kedgi, Kewda, Kewra, Ketki. Beng. – Keya, Kedki-keya, Keori, Keora, Kea, Ketaki. Guj. – Kewoda, Kevado. Kan. – Kedage, Mundige, Talemara, Kyad-agegida, Kadajlmudu, Talehyvu. Mal. – Pukkaita, Kaita, Kainari, Talampu, Kaida, Thala. Mar. – Keora, Kewda. Punj. - Keora. Tam. – Talai, Tazhai, Thalay. Tel. – Mogali, Ketaki, Gajangi. Assam - Katki. Kon. – Kegdi. Oriya - Ketaki, Kia.
BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION
A scandent shrubs, upto 6 m high, supported by aerial roots. Leaves crowded at the apex of branches, linear or ensiform, cordate–acuminate, coriaceous, margins and midrib armed with spines. Male flowers : spadix with numerous, subsessile, cylindric spikes, 5-10 cm long, enclosed in long white, fragrant, caudate-acuminate spathes. Female flowers: spadix solitary, about 5 cm in diameter. Fruit an oblong or globose syncarpium, 15-25 cm in diameter, yellow or red. Drupes numerous, each consisting of 5-12 carpels.
DISTRIBUTION
Throughout the hotter moister parts of India, especially in coastal areas of Indian Peninsula on both sides and Andamans; much planted for fences.
PARTS USED
Root, leaf, flower, fruit
ACTIONS AND USES
The roots are bitter, sweet, acrid, thermogenic, emollient, depurative, antiseptic, aphrodisiac, carminative, stomachic, suppurative, anodyne, deodorant, urinary astringent, vulnerary, sudorific, febrifuge and tonic. They are useful in skin diseases, leprosy, headache, coxalgia, osteo-arthritis, otalgia, wounds, ulcers, dyspepsia, flatulence, colic, fever, diabetes, sterility, threatened abortion, meno-metrorrhagia and general debility. The leaves are acrid, bitter, alexeteric, aphrodisiac, depurative and somniferous. They are useful in tumours, leprosy, smallpox, dysuria, syphilis, scabies, leucoderma, cardiac disorders and cerebral disorders due to insomnia. Flowers are acrid, bitter, aphrodisiac, anodyne and demulcent and are useful in pruritus, otalgia, headache, leucoderma and skin eruptions. Powder made of the anthers and tops of the bracts is recommended as snuff for epilepsy and to be smoked in sore-throat and other throat affections. The oil obtained from bracts is stimulant and antispasmodic and is useful in headache, rheumatoid arthritis, coxalgia and otalgia.  Distilled extract of fruit used as snuffing, earfilling, intake or collyrium alleviates epilepsy without fail.
Ayurvedic properties
Rasa – Tikta, Madhura, Katu
Guna – Laghu, Snigdha
Veerya - Ushna
Vipaka - Katu
Doshaghnata – Tridoshashamaka, especially Kaphapittashamaka
Rogaghnata – Katishoola, Amavata, Shirahshoola, Apasmara, Karnashoola, Vrana, Kesharoga, Daurgandhya, Shrama, Klama, Mastishkadaurbalyajanya roga, Agnimandya, Ajeerna, Vibandha, Gulma, Raktavikara, Hritspandana, Prameha, Vandhyatva, Garbhapata, Pradara, Klaibya, Varnavikara, Twagroga, Kushtha, Jwara, especially Visphotayukta jwara, Masurika, Samanya daurbalya
Karma – Varnya, Vedanasthapana, Saumanasyajanana, Akshepahara, Keshya, Daurgandhyahara, Vranaropana, Chakshushya, Mastishka-balya, Deepana, Pachana, Anulomana, Hridya, Vrishya, Raktaprasadana, Mootrasangrahaneeya, Stambhana, Prajasthapana, Vajikarana, Swedajanana, Kushthaghna, Jwaraghna, Katupaushtika
Doses - Ketakarka – 40-60 ml; Ketaka panaka – 20-40 ml.
PHARMACOGNOSY
Root pieces 2-6 cm long, 0.3 – 2 cm in diameter, cylindrical, rusty or yellowish – brown to grey, surface smooth except for protuberances at certain places, papery cork, surface uneven, easily peelable exposing a fibrous surface; usually unbreakable. Transverse section of mature root shows a wide zone of stratified cork, exfoliating at places, consisting of rectangular, thin walled, tangentially elongated, radially arranged cells, upper few layers filled with reddish-brown contents, remaining cells colourless. Cortex is a wide zone of rounded cells with fibre groups towards central and middle region, cells obliterated at places. Endodermal cells are  barrel shaped, slightly thick walled. Pericycle and phloem not distinct. Xylem forms bulk of root consisting of vessels, fibres and parenchyma. Medullary rays not distinct. Vessels show annular or pitted thickening. Fibres are thick walled, elongated having a few simple pits.
Physical constants
Foreign matter - Not more than 2 %;  Total ash - Not more than 11 %; Acid insoluble ash - Not more than 2 %; Alcohol soluble extractive - Not less than 9 %;  Water soluble extractive - Not less than 16 %.
CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS
β-sitosterol, β-sitosterol glucoside (stem); α- and ε-carotenes and 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (leaf); methyl ether of βphenylethyl alcohol, terpinen-1-ol, terpinen-4-ol, 2-phenylethyl methyl ether, isopentenyl, dimethylallyl acetates and cinnamates, α-terpineol, γ-terpinene, cineol, benzyl benzoate, benzyl salicylate, benzyl acetate, benzyl alcohol, geraniol, linalool, linalyl acetate, bromostyrene, guaiacol, phenylethyl alcohol and its methyl ether, aldehydes, dipentene, phenylethyl acetate, citral, ester of phthalic acid, caproic acid, steroptene (essential oil from flowers).
PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES
Clastogenic, cardiac depressant, antiinflammatory, CNS stimulant, anticholinergic, antidiuretic, hypoglycaemic.
FORMULATIONS AND PREPARATIONS
Ketakarka, Ketakapanaka, Triphaladi taila, Shree gopala taila, Chandrakala rasa, Akika bhasma, Nilikadya taila, Ashtadashashatika prasarini taila, Ekadashashatika prasarini taila.
PROPAGATION AND CULTIVATION
It can be propagated by offsets or division of suckers. For raising the plants fertile, well drained soil is preferable. The planting is done from June to August at 3-7 m spacing. It attains a height of 170 cm in 5 years with 20 to 25  aerial roots. The plant starts bearing flowers after 3-4 years. The flowering period is from July to October. The spadices take a fortnight to flower depending upon the climate. Fully grown Ketaki plant bears on an average 15 to 20 flowers every season depending upon the branching of the plant. Flowers produced in rainy season are comparatively bigger in size than those produced in other seasons. The flowers are plucked mostly in morning. Flowering stalks are not cut as it damages the floral primordia and arrests further flowering. Leaf blight caused by Alternaria tenuis and Botryodiplodia theobromae affects the plant and damages the leaf area causing defoliation, subsequently followed by scanty flowering.
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